19 September 2016
The current Estonian Government is a majority government and the coalition consists of three political parties: the Reform Party (RP), Social Democratic Party (SDP) and Pro Patria and Res Publica Union (IRL).
The current Government was formed following the parliamentary elections on March 1, 2015. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves nominated Mr Taavi Rõivas, of the Reform Party, to be Prime Minister. Mr Rõivas then formed the coalition government. The Reform Party has seven ministers, the Social Democratic Party has four ministers and the Pro Patria and Res Publica Union has four ministers in the Government.
|Prime Minister||Mr Taavi Rõivas
|Minister of Foreign Affairs||Ms Jürgen Ligi
|Minister of Defence||Mr Hannes Hanso
| Minister of the Interior
||Mr Hanno Pevkur
| Minister of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure
||Mr Kristen Michal
|Minister of Finance||Mr Sven Sester
| Minister of Social Protection
||Mr Margus Tsahkna
|Minister of Justice||Mr Urmas Reinsalu
|Minister of Education and Research||Mr Maris Lauri
|Minister of the Environment||Mr Marko Pomerants
|Minister of Culture||Mr Indrek Saar
|Minister of Rural Affairs
||Mr Urmas Kruuse
| Minister of Health and Labour
||Mr Jevgeni Ossinovski
|Minister of Entrepreneurship||Ms Liisa Oviir
|Minister of Public Governance||Mr. Arto Aas||RP|
The executive power of the state – the Government – is accountable to the Riigikogu (Parliament). Appointment to the office of the Prime Minister and withdrawal of the Government lies within the competence of the Parliament. The Government also enjoys a stabilising guarantee – the right to dismiss the Riigikogu with the consent of the President and call new elections if the Riigikogu expresses no confidence in the Government.
The Government (cabinet) consists of the Prime Minister and Ministers.
The Constitution defines the areas of responsibility of the Government as the following:
The President nominates the Prime Minister who then forms a Government. If the President's candidate(s) fail(s) to form a Government (the Constitution permits the President two nominations), the Riigikogu will name a Prime Minister to form a government.
The Prime Minister alone nominates the ministers, who are formally appointed by the President and swear an oath before the Riigikogu.
Government members do not need to be members of the Riigikogu or have any political party affiliation. However, the selection of the Prime Minister, the formation of a working Government, and the success of a legislative programme depend on co-operation with Parliament.
A Government can resign due to any of three reasons: the death or resignation of the Prime Minister, a vote of no-confidence in the Government by the Riigikogu, or the election of a new parliament.
After the re-establishment of independence, national elections have been held on September 20, 1992; March 5, 1995; March 7, 1999; March 2, 2003; March 4, 2007; March 6, 2011 and March 1, 2015.